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Translator or Interpreter, Which One is Right for You?

Translator or Interpreter, Which One is Right for You? was originally published on

Whats the difference between a translator and an interpreter? No this is not the set up for a joke…

Is there a difference between interpreter and translator

Understanding the Role of Language in Legal Systems

If you’re like most sane people, you’re probably thinking… They’re the same thing! You figure, “that’s just taking something done in one language and changing it over to another.

While they both seem like the same thing, the nuances between the two make huge differences in what is done.

Let me tell you a story. Back in 2012, the Supreme Court heard the case of Taniguchi v. Kan Pacific Saipan, Ltd, after this guy…


Fell through a deck at this Resort…

deck crash

table crash

Marianas Resort and Spa

The resort won the judgment and as a result was asking for $5,000 for translating documents into Japanese, and based their claim upon Title 28 U.S.C. §1920(6).

However… The court held that the statute applied strictly to interpreter’s fees and that they were not able to recover those fees for translating the documents.  Essentially, they were affirming that there is indeed a legal difference between a translator and an interpreter.

So Whats the Difference?

infograph of translator vs interpreterAccording to an interpreter is a person who provides an oral translation between speakers who speak different languages, and a translator is one who translates. Hmm, not much of a definition, I know, but that’s what it says. Seriously, Google it.

So How Do You Know Which One You Need?

When deciding if you need a translator or an interpreter, remember that a translator works with written communication and an interpreter translates oral conversation.

The difference can be tremendous and the skill set needed can make or break your next deposition. So what’s your next step now that you know which one you need. You’re in luck because that’s the easy part. You should pick up your phone and give us a call or visit our translation services page and we can help you find the very best choice to meet your interpreter or translator needs.


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Win with Trial Presentation Software!

The blog post Win with Trial Presentation Software! was created to Accurate Court Reporting Services

For an attorney, presenting the facts the best way possible could be the hardest part of the job. Trial presentation software can help attorneys gain an edge in any case.

WINNING with trial presentation software
Whether you are gearing up for a deposition, a courtroom trial, or needing to perform court transcription services, trying to determine which software to choose can be a daunting task, and one that can cost you hundreds of dollars and a lot of wasted time.

I’m Here To Help!

Latest Trial Presentation Programs

I’m going to lay out a short synopsis of some of the latest trial presentation programs in hope that this will make your decision making easier.


Trial Director


  • Grid-view for building, editing, sorting and managing large databases
  • Coding in databases using tabs
  • Simple video clip creation via: page: line, start: end or text selection with the clip wizard and segment editor
  • Fast and precise clip editing
  • Visual display waveform editor
  • Document explorer for searching exhibits with either an exhibit number or barcode
  • Dual screen mirror mode feature for working in one document/screen while displaying results on the other screen
  • Flash animation for moving presentations


Visionary Pro

visionary legal technologies

  • Issue builders
  • Full text search
  • Configurable document database for easy coding, indexing and searching
  • Video-text synching for scripted presentations
  • Easy removal of text and video
  • Voice recognition audio-video synchronizing tool
  • QuickSync for synching, uploading or sending transcripts and video/audio
  • Scan for generating or organizing TIFF and JPEG documents
  • Transcript Utility tool standardized audio-video transcripts and for hyperlinking exhibits and documents
  • Search, find and present on the fly
  • More than one million documents per case capacity
  • Export presentation as an .html file
  • Bates numbering
  • Desktop optical character recognition (OCR)
  • Export to PowerPoint
  • Play .mdb files
  • Track deadlines via Quick Sync




  • Graphics tools for annotating exhibits
  • Rotate and annotate PDF’s
  • Multi-page document display available in the thumbnail format
  • Videotape clip tool with colored issue codes
  • Easy video clip text redaction
  • Database management in grid-view format
  • Collapsible side-bar
  • Context sensitive ribbon menus
  • Carousel feature allowing for adding and rotating exhibits
  • Single or dual screen presentations modes
  • On-line synchronization service
  • Microsoft Access databases enabled easy portability
  • Integrates with several industry recognized third party applications


Trial Touch


  • iPad platform
  • Easy touch-screen technology
  • Colored tabs for separating documents to organize files
  • Search document database for file by name or description
  • Upload videos and any relevant trial exhibits directly to the iPad
  • Print exhibits wirelessly via WiFi
  • Present, redact, highlight, and zoom documents at trial
  • Project video reenactments, animations, and photographs
  • Assign exhibits with the “exhibit border” feature
  • Manage multiple trials at once
  • Upload and download content wirelessly
  • Navigate through entire cases
  • Synch from anywhere via cloud servers
  • Optimize illustrations, videos and medical animations
  • Quick-browse exhibit locator

Some of you might be thinking that all of this great but I have PowerPoint and I want to use that.

While, PowerPoint is a great feature rich presentation tool it is very generic. Others like TrialDirector, Sanction and Visionary are geared toward the legal field and there end result is for presenting to a judges, jurors, mediators and arbitrators alike.

In Conclusion

When it comes to trial presentation software, it comes down to which one gives you the most useful features for you. While I believe TrialDirector is the best one out of these four. Ted Brooks, a trial consultant, speaker and law technology writer said that “Any of them will do the job far better than attempting to present evidence using something like hard copies and an ELMO (electronic document camera) or PowerPoint”. Brooks is correct, presentation matters in any case. It can determine how convincing of case you have and what results you can get.

Honorable Mentions

Though I decided not to dive into every available software, I did feel we needed to mention these very capable court presentation software packages.





Clarity Legal – DepoSmart


Have any insights regarding these or any other softwares? Please leave a comment below.


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The Evolution of Court Reporting and Stenography

The following blog article The Evolution of Court Reporting and Stenography Read more on:

Stenography, also known as court reporting, is a very advanced technical profession. It takes years to master and very few can make the cut to become great at it. But where did court reporting start?

when did court reporting start? [divider style=’full’]

The word court reporting comes from two Greek words “steno” meaning “narrow” and “graphie” meaning writing.


history of stenography


Historical Beginnings of Shorthand Dates to 4th Century BC

Court reporting can be dated all back to the 4th Century BC where a stone slab was found at the Parthenon with shorthand scribed into it. Different forms of shorthand have been used throughout the centuries one being brachygraphy, from the Greek “brachys” meaning “short” and the other being tachygraphy, from the Greek “tachys” meaning “swift” or “speedy”. The use of the terms also depended on whether compression or speed of writing was the goal.


ancient steno machineThe first shorthand machine was invented in 1877 and later patented in 1879 by Miles Bartholomew. Since 1877 to the early 1970’s court reporters were required to transcribe their stenographic writing off of the paper tape they created form the steno machine or dictate it back for typist.

From the mid 1970’s shorthand evolved when computer-aided transcription systems were invented. This enabled a more streamlined transcription process by allowing the court reporters to record simultaneously to a paper platen and a magnetic tape, which was then read by a mini computer.


1980s apple computerBy the 1980’s computers systems were developing into personal computers and software was created to help transcribe their shorthand. The use of computers helped court reporters expand their services to providing closed captions for television broadcasts. Closed captioning has helped millions of people over the years by giving them the experience of understanding every spoken in context with their entertainment.

Continuing Evolution of Steno into The 1990s

In 1992, George Bush senior was president, the Soviet Union became the Russian Federation, and captioning had developed into realtime captioning.


This mobilized captioning known as Computer-Aided Realtime Translation, or CART, is now referred to as Communication Access Realtime Translation. The mobility of this setup enabled stenographers to provide realtime translation of the spoken word in most all venues, including the courtroom, seminars, sport stadiums and conventions.

Expert realtime court reporters are trained in writing an accurate and complete verbatim translation of the spoken word within any setting.

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Adobe Audition For Legal Depositions Editing

The following entry Adobe Audition For Legal Depositions Editing Digest more on: Accurate Court Reporting

If you are in the business of legal videography you might have noticed that over the last 10 years, Adobe has made some major changes to keep up with the market.

 adobe audition for legal videography

From my perspective not only as a legal videographer but also as a graphic designer, I see Adobe as the Apple of the creative software industry. They have not only set industry standards in function but also for creating easy user interfaces that really grab their audiences and allow them to create work efficiently. Now that I have proclaimed my love for everything Adobe, I want to focus on an aspect of legal videography that sometimes goes overlooked in our industry.

The Power of Clean, Noise Free Audio in Your Deposition Video

Audio mastering for your legal video, at least to me, is one of the forgotten attributes of producing a great video for your clients. I am not talking about manipulating any of the audio but cleaning it up by removing outside noise airplanes or cars, air conditioners or even electrical hum produced by the video equipment.

remove the noise from audio

There is nothing worse than watching a deposition that has a small hum or irritating crackling on the audio. To help produce the best quality audio you can, it is best to repair it so that your clients, and even the jury, is not distracted from hums, hisses and outside noise.

This were a great set of software can improve your video quality.

Audition at least to me the best choice when learning to master audio and repair it. Audition in some aspects is Soundbooth on steroids. All the lost functions from Soundbooth are found in Audition. For instance Soundbooth doesn’t have a multi band compressor but Audition does. When applying the multiband compressor.

Audio Forensics – Getting a Handle on Adobe Soundbooth

The multiband compressor in itself gives you full control of its parameters with individual threshold, gain, ratio, attack and release for each bandwidth. Also the effect allows you better customization of the bandwidths to help with better frequency adjustments.

It is hard to be critical of what Soundbooth has done for me. In all intents and purposes it fits perfectly with doing minor audio repair and simple adjustments to enhance the minor sound dynamics. The features in Soundbooth are great only in that it is integrates very well with Premiere Pro but other than that isn’t very dynamic.

For instance, when applying something as simple as an EQ effect, it gives you a very simple adjustment graph that doesn’t allow you to be very precise with your parameters. Mostly it is a parametric EQ with low, mid and high adjustments and depending on which version you are using won’t let you fine tune your limits for each parameter. While Soundbooth does have noise reduction effects and they do work well with removing the noise it does weaken the sound and will require more adjustments to strengthen it.

In Summary

All in all, Soundbooth is great despite its lack of fully developed effects and is a great place for beginners to start. While Audition is better, and is my final choice when it comes to audio software, Soundbooth is simple to use and can give you a definite baseline to start from when learning how to master audio. Coupled with its integration with Premiere Pro it can help any videographer get his or her feet wet in repairing audio for their next deposition.

Lastly, if you are looking for a free audio editor with ton’s of capability, I cannot overlook Audacity.

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What is a Deposition? (Part 2)

What is a Deposition? (Part 2) Enjoy more on: Accurate Court Reporting Legal Services

In our last deposition’s related article we covered who was present at a deposition. Now, lets continue to explore the question…What is a Deposition?

What is deposition servicesThose that are present are the deponent, attorneys and the court reporter.  Now that we know who is present, what generally happens during a deposition?

To start, the witness or deponent needs to be sworn in.

sworn testimonyThis oath or affirmation is the same one given to the deponent that would be given if the testimony were in court in front of a judge and jury. After the oath is given the attorney that has ordered the deposition begins their questioning. This initial line of questioning is known as the direct examination.

After the direct examination, other attorneys have the opportunity to cross-exam the witness. During the cross-examination the witness is asked a series of questions that pertain to an opposing party in the case.

There is a series of back-and-forth’s that can take place known as re-directs, which is where the initial attorney can ask follow-up questions, and re-crosses, where the opposing attorney or attorneys can ask more follow-up questions.

“This back-and-forth can continue until both parties feel satisfied with the questioning.”

During the questioning the witness has the responsibility to be clear and precise with their answers.

Since a deposition is an oral dictation of events, things like head nods and gestures… and even onomatopoeias like umm or un-huh cannot be recorded. The responses of the witness rely heavily on the attorney to ask the correct questions in a way that are agreeable to opposing counsel.

objection in court of lawWhen a question or a line of questioning is objectionable to either side, the attorney can object to the question. An attorney has the right to object to a question for instance, to either assert a privilege, like attorney client privileges or to object to the form of the question. Objections to the form of the question are usually to caution witnesses about the way the question was phrased. If the form of the question is objected to, the attorney has the right to rephrase the question but even if it not rephrased the witness must answer the question.

A deposition is an important proceeding…

A deposition is an important proceeding that has a lot of moving parts in the form of persons and personalities. In general they usually are completed without any issues, but just like life sometimes things get heated or misunderstandings take place that can throw a lot of excitement into the mix.

Accurate Court Reporting offers legal deposition services. We provide conference rooms, technical support, audio and video technology, and even lunch and refreshments for longer engagements. Call 1-888-227-3335 for more information.

If you missed part one of this article, please click here.

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How Does a Stenograph Work?

The entry How Does a Stenograph Work? was initially seen on

Creating legal transcripts with a stenography machine

A stenograph machine, sometimes mistaken for a stenotype, is simply a machine that writes shorthand. The stenograph is used by court reporters, who specialize in the field of Court Reporting.

Why would anyone use a stenograph instead of using a regular QWERTY keyboard?

The answer relies in this:

typistAn average person can speak anywhere from 180 to 200 words per minute. Now the average individual can type on a QWERTY keyboard (otherwise known as an alpha numeric keyboard) at approximately 33 words per minute and can hand-write about 31 words per minute from memorized, text and 22 words per minute while copying.

Even a professional “typist” can type up to 50 to 80 words per minute. So already you can see a problem here. The average human cannot use a QWERTY keyboard to record someone’s words per minute. In order for an average human to write words per minute, we need a shorthand machine, like a stenograph machine.

The average certified stenographer can type anywhere from 200 to 250 words per minute. Some really good stenographers can even type up to 300 words per minute. To this day, the world record for this is 375 words per minute.


The Stenotype Keyboard

transcriptions-services-machine-2Unlike a QWERTY keyboard, the stenotype keyboard has only 22 keys. On a stenograph machine, the words can be individually reduced to one letter or a combination of the letters. Take example the words “Way” and “Weigh”; the words are indifferent but the sound is essentially the same. Regardless of the spelling of the word on the stenograph machine, the sound is essentially the same. This simplifies the process of recording any spoken words.


To help streamline the process of recording spoken words even more, the stenographer uses a technique on the stenotype machine known as “chording”. If you have ever played a musical instrument, this would make perfect sense to you. When you hit a series of buttons or strings, you essentially create a sound; the same process is done on the stenograph machine.

A chord can stand for a syllable, a word or even an entire phrase. Each chord entered into a stenotype machine creates one line on the steno paper. Each row of steno paper contains 22 columns in which one character will be printed for each key on the keyboard and are printed out in this order from left to right: STKPWHRAO*EUFRPBLGTSDZ. If you would like to see a complete listing of the chord characters you can view the chart here:

How Does It Work?

In order for us to understand how it works, we need to understand what the keys are. Here is an image of what the stenotype keyboard looks like:

Stenotype Keyboard Layout

Stenotype Keyboard Layout

Your first assumption might be, there aren’t enough keys to make all the words out there. Keep in mind about the process of chording we talked of earlier. Here’s an example to show you how it can world in action.

If you hit these keys all at once: TPEURB, it would spell the word “Fish”. The TP is the “F” sound, EU is the “I” sound and finally the RB is the “sh” sound.


There have been a number of techniques, such as “briefs”, which are chord abbreviations and have been used to optimize the stenographer’s typing performance. However, each stenographer has his or her own techniques to optimize their performance. Essentially, each stenographer has his or her own “traits”.

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Veterans Day Printable Poster – Fill in the Name of Your Favorite Friend or Family Member!

Veterans Day Printable Poster – Fill in the Name of Your Favorite Friend or Family Member! was first created to

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Friendly Tips on “Going Green”

Friendly Tips on “Going Green” Find more on: Accurate Court Reporting


Here at Accurate Court Reporting, we have discussed on our webpage about how we are implementing eco-conscience choices. In addition to that, we have decided to delve further into businesses, not only for attorney and court reporting offices, but any run-of-the-mill business as well.

In today social climate it is definitely very popular to be eco-conscience. The basic logic behind the being green concept is something that even the most stanch idealist can accept. We should protect what we have now so that future generations can have and what we have as well as experience what we experience. If you believe it or not there are things that we can do as a businesses that can help save resources for the future.


1.  Digital Storage
Tips on going greenA great way to start saving is by storing all your important documents on servers or cloud based storage.


This is great because everything is stored online for you and can be accessed either in your office or remotely 24/7 from anywhere.

If you are a little timid to getting into network servers and cloud storage try an easier approach by using external hard drives, zip drives or CD’s. This storage system, coupled with an appropriate filing system, can save you hundreds in the cost of paper and will take up far less real estate in your offices.

Let’s put it this way, one 16 gb flash drive can store the contents of a four-drawer filing cabinet. Imagine if you purchased a 1TB or even a 2TB hard drive. The document storage would be seemingly endless!


2. Using Recycled Materials

recyclingIf it just too impossible to get away from using paper, try using supplies that contain recycled materials. This will help eliminate the amount of trees that are consumed. Also by buying other supplies like re-manufactured ink and toner cartridges, you can help keep approximately 2.5 pounds of metal and plastic out of landfills. Re-manufacturing one toner cartridge also conserves about a half-gallon of oil.


3. Recycling

If you are implementing steps 1 and 2 already, the likely hood that you have a lot of office materials to recycle is probably very slim. If you haven’t started yet, this is one the easiest steps to begin with. Things you can recycle are office paper, boxes and ink cartridges. Most commercial buildings have recycle dumpsters within their complex or have a recycling collection system for all the suites within the building. This helps the complexes save in waste removal fees and provides a lot of material to be used in re-manufacturing everyday goods. If you are not sure about your particular area try calling the building managers or if you are in a commercial park try talking to the complexes association president about what they do with recyclables.


4. Water Coolers over Water bottles

sea, water, message in a bottleThe last way that you can help your office go green is by using an inter-office water cooler instead using the traditional bottles of water. For instance in our office we have about 20 people that work there at one time. One of the perks we were given was that we were supplied with an endless amount of bottled water for everyone to drink throughout the day.

This is such a nice thing to have good, clean water whenever you want it. But in an effort to reduce our carbon footprint we switched over to the use of several water coolers instead. This didn’t cut back on the amount of water the employees were drinking but it saves on the amount of plastic that was being thrown out every day.


There isn’t one single thing that we can do that can change what has already happened. But it all starts with people making small steps towards a goal of conservation. If it is the implementation of water coolers, using supplies made from recycled materials or storing your data digitally, these are all steps that can be made to help conserve a little more for everyone down the road.

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What to Wear to a Legal Proceeding

What to Wear to a Legal Proceeding is available on Accurate Court Reporting Inc



Growing up there was a lot of things I remember my parents always telling me to do. There was always the typical sit-up straight or you‘ll have bad posture when you grow-up, always wear clean underwear because let’s face it you just never know and last there is nothing better than a great first impression. A first impression is what can set the tone in whatever you are doing and there are several things that go into that but one we are going to focus on is how to dress to impress.


Whether you are a lawyer, a court certified shorthand reporter, the judge or the defendant, the thing to remember is that any kind of legal proceeding is important and how you dress needs to reflect that you are taking this seriously. For those of you that are being deposed, dressing properly can help thwart any suspicions of guilt, mistrust or disrespect. These are the times when you need not put yourself at a disadvantage to the jury.


Attorneys need to know to that as a professional you need to reflect that you are worth your time and money. In my time working depositions I know that there is a certain level of professionalism that goes into one. I have seen some attorneys show up to the courtrooms in things that wouldn’t be appropriate even if they worked at Wal-Mart. For instance, at a deposition of an expert witness an attorney showed up in cargo shorts, strapped sandals, Hawaiian shirt and safari hat. The reasoning behind this was he was going on a fishing charter right after the deposition. I can understand that it may not have been any time to change but to show up to a deposition dressed like this is a little extreme.


The next question is how do I dress? What should I wear and what should I avoid while at a deposition or any legal proceeding.


Tips for the Gentleman

A major tip is to definitely look professional. There is no penalty for being the best dress person in the room. Here’s a list of things you should do and have as well as three possible solutions to looking professional.


Things you must have:

  • At least one pair of nice Khakis
  • At least one long sleeve, button up dress shirt
  • Dress shoes, dress Socks and leather belt that match, i.e. black shoes, socks and belt.
  • At least two nice ties. Having two neckties is great just in case you are called in to do a deposition and then called to appear in court. This way the same shirt and khakis look different in both occasions.


3 solutions to dressing successfully:

1. A suit and tie. Wearing a suit and tie is always a great thing while at a deposition or in court. This shows confidence and the acknowledgement that you will go the extra mile.

Mens Business SuitMens Business Suit             Mens Business Suit


2. Business casual with a sport coat. Again this suggestion comes from years of experience in dressing down while looking like you dress up. Here are a few examples of what I mean.

Mens Business Sport CoatMens Business Sport CoatMens Business Sport Coat


3. There are some of you out there that don’t own a suit or sport coat. But that is ok. Wearing a pressed pair of khakis and a tucked in, long sleeve button up shirt can be all you really need. Some other suggestions would be to wear a sweater or quarter zipped pullover. Match that with a pair of dress pants or khakis and you will still look good without wearing a suit and tie. Here are a few examples of what I mean.

Men Business CasualMens Business Casual 2


Tips for the Ladies

Just like the gentlemen the major tip is to look professional. There are many ways to accomplish this but the best advice would be to make sure that your dress code lines up to something similar to the corporate world. Things like short skirts and tops that show too much cleavage are obvious things to avoid. When it comes to women’s fashion within the work place I can tell you that I am no expert but have seen over the years timeless fashions that always seem to work.


Things you must have:

  • A pair of nice black, blue or white pumps
  • Accessories. This is what you can get to really show off who you are. By choosing matching sets of earrings, necklaces, and bracelets will really give you the ability to stylize any outfit without spending a lot of money.
  • Handbags and purses. This is really a personal choice as to what style and look you want to achieve. Anything designer works but with so many options out there is won’t be hard to find something within your budget.


3 solutions to dressing successfully:


1. There is nothing wrong with a pant suit, but for those of you that have been turned off by them because of their reputation for being looked at as fashion suicide I am here to show that they are still a great addition to a professional woman’s wardrobe. When wearing the right pant suit or skirt suit it is a really powerful statement that can show you mean business. For a timeless pant and skirt suits I would make the suggestion to lean towards more traditional color choices like black, navy blue, grey or tan. With women fashion anything you were can be styled up through your choice of accessories.

Here are a few suggestions:

Women Business Pant SuitWomen Business Pant SuitWomen Business Pant Suit

Women Business Suit SkirtWomen Business Suit SkirtWomen Business Suit Skirt

2. Dresses are a great choice for keeping a more feminine look while maintaining the level of dress that may be needed. When wearing dresses, as well as skirts in the work place you should be conscience of the length. Anything that is cut higher than right above the knee could be considered too high. There is no need to overdo the style of dress as it can be dressed up with accessories as you like.

Women Business Dress 2Women Business Dresses 1Women Business Dress


3. Casual dress for women is probably the one thing that could be the hardest to determine if it is still formal enough in the work place. On idea would be to replace the more formal suit jacket with a cardigan or a more casual jacket. This still keeps you looking like you mean business and have you feeling more comfortable. If your environment allows it jeans are a great way to dress down without losing any formal appeal. The one requirement to wearing jeans is to leave the distressed ones at home. There is no way that you can look like you mean business while wearing a pair of wholly jeans.

Here are a few successions:

Women Business CasualWomen Business CasualWomen Business Casual


Fashion in the work place is always changing and those changes have made it challenging sometimes for those working in the legal realm. The formalities that once existed decades ago have been traded in for more practical and comfortable choices. The key thing to remember is to always look professional. You fashion choices are really up to you so go out and find what works for you and your budget. A great place you men to start would be Banana Republic, Mens Wearhouse, Brooks Brothers and Ralph Lauren. For the ladies I look at Macy’s, Kohls, Ralph Lauren and Banana Republic.

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What is a Deposition? (Part 1)

The blog post What is a Deposition? (Part 1) Read more on: Accurate Court Reporting Inc

schedule a deposition

There may be some of you out there, like me, which seem absolutely stumped sometimes when you come across any kind of legal jargon. Before I started working with Accurate Court Reporting, I didn’t know much about the legal process or any of the terminology used in the legal realm. Everything I knew was from watching reruns of TV shows like L.A. Law, Law and Order (yes, you can count any one of the spinoffs as well), The Practice and even Night Court. I thought by seeing the drama in the court room and watching the likes of Jack McCoy (Law and Order) tearing a witness apart on the stand was what it was like in a court room every day. But, it being television I understand that there is very little that is done on those shows that actually translate to real life. I would think that there are many people out there that think the same way I do; this is why I am starting this series on legal jargon.

So I ask the question, “What is a deposition”? A deposition is where an individual is asked to be present for questioning. It is where an out-of-court oral testimony of a witness that is captured under oath by a certified court reporter and is later produced into a transcript. These testimonies are generally used later on in court or used for discovery purposes to help attorneys learn more facts about a case.


Who is Present at a Deposition?

The main individuals that are present at a deposition are the witness or deponent. The deponent is usually notified by subpoena or by his or her council to appear at a given time and place for questioning. The deponent is the most important individual present because they may hold key information that can sway a case in either direction.

Next are the attorneys. The attorneys present are the deponent’s council and any other council who has parties involved in the case. This can be an infinite amount of people and can range anywhere from 2 to 100, but realistic only entails a handful of attorneys at best.

Last is the court reporter. The reporter starts by administering an oath. It is the same oath that the deponent would take if the testimony were being given in court in front of a judge and jury. The reporter then captures a verbatim stenographic record of all that is said during the deposition. Now there are differences depending on which state the deposition is taking place as-well-as other individuals that can be present, like a father or mother, if a juvenile is the one being deposed.

More to be continued in Part 2!

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